Abortion is the prime cause of femicide in the world," declare the black-and-white posters that have appeared in several areas of Rome, BBC reports.
But the campaign has provoked widespread anger and led to appeals to the mayor to get the posters removed.
One feminist group condemned the posters as "disgraceful" while others objected to the use of a word often used for the killing of women by men.
Italy is about to mark 40 years since abortion was made legal.
The Madrid-based CitizenGo group behind the posters timed the campaign to coincide with the 22 May anniversary of Italy's Law 194, as well as a "march for life" in the centre of Rome on Saturday.
In a series of messages on social media, it said that after 40 years the law had failed and that abortion was often used to suppress women, leaving "millions of babies killed and women injured".